Illustrious figures from the Department of La Libertad

VICTOR RAUL HAYA DE LA TORRE

At the end of 2000 the BBC in London conducted a survey to choose the man most prominent in Latin America at the millennium ended. Victor Raul Haya de la Torre was one of the 10 most rated. This is a test of the significance of the founder of thought indoamericana. The origins Haya de la Torre was born in Trujillo in northern Peru, a February 22, 1895. From a very early age showed concern about social problems, and since secondary education at the College Seminary of San Carlos and San Marcelo Trujillo took over the role of leader.

Later university and its intellectual inclination leads him to join the legendary group The Bohemia, where then highlighted Cesar Vallejo. The beloved poet cultivated friendship with the young Hague. Later, it's up to the great poet precisely predict the fate of Haya de la Torre, "I assure prophet by this pigeon condor, I prophet, announced that fly high and will be big, big…", would be his famous words.

POLITICS

Heterodox Marxist Thinker, Haya de la Torre applied historical materialism to the revision of history and objective conditions of Latin America, deducting this an original theory of political action to drive those companies toward socialism. In terms of its theoretical thought, though Marxist, will be different and even opposite of an orthodox Leninism regard to the socialist strategy in colonial societies or peripheral.

Haya de la Torre left a legacy in the history of Peruvian politics, living for many years in exile. His thoughts that led to the founding of the APRA party, still remain in force, so the APRA party is the oldest of Peru. And his ideas influenced significantly in historical Social Democratic Party of other Latin American nations like Venezuela, Democratic Action. Today is regarded as a benchmark by many Latin American presidents as Néstor Kirchner or Hugo Chávez. His famous phrase "Neither Washington nor Moscow!" Shows its rejection of the imperialism and the Marxist Soviet communism.

In his grave, is a large rock with the phrase "Here lies the light", placed by the APRA in honor of his great political thoughts.

Haya de la Torre was a humanist, writer, speaker and politician. As a university leader assumed the presidency of the Student Federation of Peru (EFF) in 1919. At this stage of his life organized and directed the student congress held in Cusco, in 1920, when he founded the People's University Gonzalez Prada. Founded in Mexico
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), in 1924, and subsequently the Peruvian APRA party, in 1930. But the political activity of Haya de la Torre begins back in his native Trujillo. His first contact was with books in a library worker, near his home, there was a chance to chat with farmers from the estates of Laredo, Rome, Casa Grande and Cartavio, whole and the exploitation and injustices suffered by their bosses. When travel Peru and appreciate our socio-economic, Haya de la Torre was identified with the neediest. "I can not remember the Indian Peru without saying my word of protest and accusation. Anyone who has come to our solitudes Andean will have seen those broad masses of peasants sad, and cabizbajos rags, carrying on their shoulders the burden of four centuries of slavery sinister ", repeating a vindictive tone.

At the age of 22 are enrolled at the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, where he finished studies education and law. Back in Lima, comes to light the innate spirit defender of justice and the Hague demonstrates collaborating in the direction of the labour movement to demand the eight-hour day. The government of Jose Pardo, January 15, 1919, promulgated the decree historic day for eight hours. On October 16, Victor Raul was appointed President of the EFF.

When considering the policy of the dictatorial president Leguía mobilized students to defend constitutional freedoms. In this regard, Luis Alberto Sanchez noted in his book Literature Peruvian significant that the pretext of this campaign was his opposition to the planned consecration of the country to the Heart of Jesús.El October 2, 1923 was captured and taken to the San Lorenzo island, where was declared on hunger strike, which was why banished to Panama. This country went to Cuba and then to Mexico, and served here as Secretary of education minister Jose de Vasconcelos.

After this experience traveling to Europe, where he stayed until 1927 at which time he visited Russia, Switzerland, England and participated in the Congress Antiimperialistas de Brussels, where he raised the difference between the APRA and communism. Defenestration Leguía and has been summoned to elections, the Peruvian APRA party submits to Hague as a candidate, but to succeed in elections in October 1931 Lieutenant Colonel Luis M. Sanchez Cerro, Hague initiated an intransigent opposition.

Haya de la Torre presided over the Constituent Congress that drafted the Magna Carta of 1979.

Apart from his hectic political life, Haya de la Torre spent some time to translate their ideas into books that until now were needed for consultation. Among them are: "For the emancipation of americas America", "Building the Aprismo," "Where will indoamérica", "And what after the war" and held more work "The anti-imperialism and the APRA." Life of Haya de la Torre was fully identified with Peruvian politics until his death in the 84 years of age, August 2, 1979. His remains rest in his hometown. "Here lies the light," reads the epitaph on his grave.

 

 

ANTENOR ORREGO ESPINOZA

Antenor Orrego Espinoza, journalist, politician and thinker aprista Peruvian, born in Santa Cruz, Cajamarca, May 22, 1892 and killed on July 17, 1960 in Lima.

Very young man was taken to Trujillo, where he studied at the Seminary of San Carlos and San Marcelo, and at the Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, then called University of La Libertad.

In 1914 organized among its many plans the group called "El Norte" or "Group of Trujillo," which brought together young brightest intellectuals and artists of his era.

Was devoted to journalism in many newspapers of the time as "Freedom", "Reform" and "The Week". In 1923 he founded the newspaper "El Norte", in which his group, formed by Alcides Spelucín, Belisario Espelucín, Federico Esquerro, John Mirror Asturrizaga, Eugenio Jorge Castaneda, and Cesar Vallejo, a correspondent from abroad, among others.

In Lima was a columnist and then director of the daily "The Torch" and "platform".

He had a son, the architect Antonio Orrego Spelucín. He died in 1960 of a heart attack.

Political activity

Its shares directly political campaign is made to strengthen workers' strike Chicama Valley between 1918 and 1921. For this maneuver was closed the newspaper in which at the time, and was imprisoned. After also was taken prisoner at Real Felipe, the sixth and the Fronton, from those who did not fail to exert influence.

In 1940 he managed to recover the Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, whose status and strengthened campus.

In 1914 at 22 years old and while still at the University of Liberty, he met with a generation of intellectuals, who later would become the shapers of social thought of the twentieth century in Peru. Based under his leadership the "North Group", its validity has been extended until 1930, becoming an aspect of Aprismo build and work. The "Group North" was chaired by Antenor Orrego Espinoza and was composed of intellectuals and artists of great talent like that of Cesar Vallejo-Orrego announced his arrival as a great personality-poetic, Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, Alcides Spelucín, July Eulogio Garrido, Macedonian de la Torre, Oscar Imaña, John Mirror Asturrizaga, Xandoval Francisco, July Esquerra "Esquerriloff" and Eloy Espinoza. Ciro Alegria, much younger, joined them in their later years as a group.

Works

The eternal monologue (Trujillo, 1929)

Trials for an interpretation of Latin America (Chile, 1939)

Towards an American humanism (Lima, 1966)

Trilce Cesar Vallejo (Lima, 1922)

The book of the ship's golden Alcides Spelucín (Trujillo, 1926

PEDRO AZABACHE BUSTAMANTE

Brief Biography


Peruvian painter, born in Moche, Trujillo, in 1918. He was a disciple of Jose Sabogal and is one of the few direct continuation of indigenousness.
He studied at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts where he joined in 1937.

In June 1944 submitted its first sample individually in the exclusive rooms of the cultural institution "Insula" at the invitation of poet Jose Galvez Barrenechea. In 1962, he founded the School of Fine Arts in Trujillo, where he was its first director.

 

 
 

CESAR VALLEJO MENDOZA

Without discussion, the Peruvian poet largest of all time, a figure capital of the Latin American poetry of the twentieth century-along with Neruda and-Huidobro and one of the most original voices of the Spanish language. His complex world of poetry is distinguished by a deep attachment to family; everyday experiences of pain and death; vision of the world as a place penitential without certainty of salvation; solidarity with the poor of the capitalist system and faith in the revolutionary utopia promised to men by Marxism. At various stages of his work showed up influences of modernism, the avant-garde, indigenism, poetry and social impact of historical events, like the Spanish Civil War.

Born in Santiago de Chuco, in the Andean area of northern Peru, a 6-hour journey by road from Trujillo, in a family with Spanish and indigenous roots. Since the child knew the misery, but also the heat from home, which felt a far incurable orphan. He studied at the University of Trujillo, a city where he received encouragement from-the bohemian-formed by local journalists, writers and political rebels. He published his first poems before arriving in Lima in late 1917. In this city appears his first book, The harbingers blacks (printed in 1918), one of the most representative examples of postmodernism. In 1920 makes a visit to his hometown, where he is involved in some disturbances that will take you to jail for about three months, this experience will have a critical and ongoing influence in his life and work, and so is reflected in very direct several poems of his next book, Trilce (1922). It is considered this work as a key moment in the renewal of poetic language hispanoamericano because it shows Vallejo away from the traditional models that until then had followed, incorporating some of the leading news and doing a distressing and perplexing immersion in the depths of the human condition that have never before been explored. The following year party for Paris, where it will remain (with some trips to the Soviet Union, Spain and other European countries) until the end of his life. Years Parisians were of extreme poverty and intense physical and moral suffering. Join with friends as Huidobro, Gerardo Diego, Juan Larrea and Juan Gris in activities of bias avant-garde, but soon recant their own Trilce towards 1927 and appears firmly committed to Marxism and its intellectual and political activism. He writes articles for newspapers and magazines, plays, short stories and essays of intent propaganda, like Russia in 1931. Reflections at the foot of the Kremlin (1931). Enrolled in the Communist Party of Spain (1931) and was named correspondent, follows closely the actions of the Civil War and wrote his poem more political: Spain, departs from me this chalice, which appears printed in 1939 by army soldiers Republican. All poetry written in Paris, and that Vallejo Parc published in various journals, appear posthumously in that city under the title Human Poems (1939). In this production is visible their efforts to overcome the vacuum and nihilism of Trilce and to incorporate elements of the historical and factual (Peruvian, European, universal) with which it intends to express a passionate faith in the struggle of men for justice and social solidarity.
THE HERALD Black


There are blows in life, so strong… I do not know!
Blows as the hatred of God, as if before them,
The hangover of everything suffered
empozara is in the soul… I do not know!

Few, but are… They open ditches dark
in the face more fierce and in the back stronger.
They will be perhaps foals of barbarians Atila;
or send us heralds Blacks
Death.
They are deep falls of Christ's soul,
some adorable faith that the Destination blasphemous.
Those bloody coups are crepitaciones
some bread in the oven door was burning us.

And the man…… Poor poor! Back eyes, as
over his shoulder when we called a pat;
re mad eyes, and everything lived
empoza is, as puddle of guilt in sight.

There are blows in life, so strong… I do not know!

 

 

 

 

CIRO ALEGRIA BAZAN

Born on November 4, 1909 at the Hacienda Quilca, province of Sanchez Carrion, department of La Libertad.

He studied at the "Modern Institute" in Cajamarca and the National University of Trujillo. In this city was devoted to journalism, writing in the daily "El Norte" and "The Industry"

His social and political sensibility led him to become a militant of APRA, founded by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre. That cost him his two years in prison, around the thirties, during the government of Augusto B. Leguía. Some years later admitted as news editor at "La Tribune". Apres again, is banished to Chile, where he continues doing journalism.

 

 

In 1941, his novel The World Is Wide and External-summit-his work is declared winner of a contest latinoamericano convened by a publisher in New York. On this occasion he traveled to the United States, where the entire decade of 40.

It is incorporated in the Peruvian Academy of Language in 1960. Three years later was elected deputy by the department of La Libertad.

Later assumes the post of President of the National Association of Writers and Artists. It is precisely this position when exercising dies in the year of 1967 ..

Production literary

Writer avant-garde, among its major novels have:

"The Golden Snake"

"The Hungry Dogs"

"The World is Wide and External"

"Duel of Knights" (collection of short stories)

"Lazarus" (posthumous work).

 

 

LUIS JOSE DE ORBEGOSO

Jose Luis de Orbegoso and Moncada, (Huamachuco, August 25, 1795 - Trujillo, February 5, 1847). Military and political Peruvian. He was president of Peru from 1833 to 1836, stage of deep social division and a continuing civil war so that at several points his government coexisted with those of Pedro Pablo Bermúdez and Felipe Santiago Salaverry.

Born in Chuquizongo, Huamachuco in 1795. He studied at the College Seminary of San Carlos and San Marcelo Trujillo, participated with José de San Martín in the war of independence and the war against Gran Colombia during the government of Jose de La Mar. After the first government of Agustin Gamarra was elected president in 1833 time top-rated Pedro Pablo Bermúdez, preferred Gamarra

 

During his government suffered the enmity of Gamarra, who since his exile, supported Bermudez who was for a short period of the presidency. Also had to contend with the young Felipe Santiago Salaverry who the "ousted" in 1835. However, Orbegoso not lost control of the southern part of the country and, with the support of then president of Bolivia, Andrés de Santa Cruz, regained power throughout the country and executed Salaverry. In payment to the support he received from Santa Cruz, agreed to train with his Bolivian Confederation Peru. Santa Cruz took Supreme Protectorate of Confederation and Orbegoso remained only the chairmanship of State Nor Peruano.

After being defeated by the issue of restorative Gamarra and Chile, Orbegoso had to leave the country, returning later and removed from active political life. He died in Trujillo in 1847.

JOSE FAUSTINO SANCHEZ CARRION

In some moments in the history of characters appear exceptional significance whose name only summarizes the main values of the Peruvian nation. In this dimension can locate Jose Faustino Sanchez Carrion, a world-class Peruvian who became the first ideologist of the emancipation of Peru. Considered by historians as the founder and organizer of the judiciary independent of Peru.

Jose Faustino Sanchez Carrion gave birth to a February 13, 1787 in the town of Huamachuco, located in the La Libertad region. In the early nineteenth century the College Seminary of San Carlos and San Marcelo Trujillo was led by Father Tomas Gonzalez de Rivero. There, at age 15, Jose Faustino Sanchez Carrion began their studies. Two years later he traveled to Lima to study in Convictorio of San Carlos, led by Toribio Rodriguez Mendoza, which was formed in an atmosphere of liberal trend.

At the same Convictorio began teaching exercise, focusing on the teaching of mathematics and philosophy. 1819 was a year of joys and sorrows for prócer: while he graduated as a lawyer, Viceroy Pezuela ordering his expulsion from the chair of philosophy because his ideas were too innovative and revolutionary. After the death of his father and his wife, Mrs. Josefa Antonia Duenas, Sanchez Carrion withdrew from public life to devote himself to caring for her young daughter. However, in 1822 broke his silence and participated in discussions that were generated around the form of government that should take the Peruvian government after winning the long-awaited independence. In this context two parties were formed: the monarchists and republicans. Sanchez Carrion was declared openly Republican and came to face Bernardo Monteagudo. Since then received the name with which happen to history: The solo Sayan. Man laws. In 1822 Jose Faustino Sanchez Carrion joined the first Constituent Congress of Peru as deputy for Trujillo and Puno, where he quickly stood out for his parliamentary skills that enabled him to participate as a principal drafter of the first Constitution of Peru in 1823Por that time, their ideological approaches the expressed through the republican newspaper The bee, the tribune of the Peruvian Republic and commercial mail. When the liberator Simón Bolívar came to Peru in 1823, defined the final battle for the emancipation of americas. At that time Sanchez Carrion supported the decision of Congress that granted full powers to the liberator, making it dictator. In 1824 Bolivar Sanchez Carrion appointed as minister general, playing an important role in the fight against the hosts realistic. At the end of that year, the liberator appointed him prime minister and Foreign Affairs. Also, Congress declared it to Benemérito Homeland degree in heroic and distinguished. In February 1825 Bolivar appointed him a member of the Supreme Court, but prócer health had declined sharply. Finally, Jose Faustino Sanchez Carrion died in the Lurin June 2, 1825, at 38 years old.

 

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